Team and Coach Gender: The Effect of the Expletive Halftime Speech

Carrington Ream , Hoyoon Jung , Bomin Paek

Abstract


Although expletive use is considered taboo in most societies, expletives are commonly used in sports. However, the impact of expletives on coaching effectiveness has not received significant attention because of the unique nature of sports in which fierce competition is condoned and even encouraged.Inthe current study, the researchers aim to examine whether expletives alter the effectiveness of speeches given by coaches across genders. Collecting data from a total of 133 respondents, ANOVA demonstrated that expletive word use during halftime speeches by coaches did not play a role in diminishing the coaching effectiveness, regardless of the coach's gender and the players' gender. Additionally, male and female participants perceived expletive speech differently, and student-athletes rated the speeches as significantly more effective than the nonstudent-athletes. This study suggests practical implications for female coaches, who may consider stepping out of traditional expected roles (e.g., supportive and caring) and adopting language in coaching traditionally reserved for male coaches, given that their choice of language will not negatively impact their coaching effectiveness. However, further examination is needed for the robustness of our findings as the current study does not necessarily demonstrate an increase in effectiveness or a positive shift in perceptions from the use of expletives.


Keywords


Coaching effectiveness; Expletives; Gender difference.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashmore, R. D. (2015). Sex stereotypes and implicit personality theory. In Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 37–81). Psychology Press.

Bergen, B. K. (2016). What the F: What swearing reveals about our language, our brains, and ourselves. NY: Basic Books.

Berkley, N. M. (1999). Women’s golf programs that work: Best practices and case studies. FL: National Golf Foundation.

Bermon, S., Adami, P. E., Dahlström, Ö., Fagher, K., Hautala, J., Ek, A., Anderson, C., Jacobsson, J., Svedin, C. G., & Timpka, T. (2021). Lifetime prevalence of verbal, physical, and sexual abuses in young elite athletics athletes. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.657624

Bertrand, M. (2020). Gender in the twenty-first century. AEA Papers and Proceedings, 110, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1257/pandp.20201126

Blom, L. C., Abrell, L., Wilson, M. J., Lape, J., Halbrook, M., & Judge, L. W. (2011). Working with male athletes: The experiences of U.S. female head coaches. Journal of Research, 6(1), 54–61.

Coates, J. (1999). Women behaving badly: Female speakers backstage. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(1), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00063

Conley, J. M., O’Barr, W. M., & Riner, R. C. (1998). Just words: Law, language, and power. University of Chicago Press.

DeFrank, M., & Kahlbaugh, P. (2019). Language choice matters: When profanity affects how people are judged. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 38(1), 126–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X18758143

Dickens, D. D., & Chavez, E. L. (2018). Navigating the workplace: The costs and benefits of shifting identities at work among early career U.S. black women. Sex Roles, 78(11–12), 760–774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-017-0844-x

Dwyer, H. (2010). Curriculum connections psychology: The individual and society. Brown Bear Books Ltd.

Feezell, R. (2008). Vulgarians of the world unite: Sport, dirty language, and ethics. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 35(1), 17–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2008.9714725

Feinberg, D. (2022, January 19). Becky hammon: It was easy decision to leave NBA, return to WNBA. https://www.nba.com/news/becky-hammon-it-was-easy-decision-to-leave-nba-return-to-wnba

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 491–512. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.491

Guardado, M. (2022, April 13). First on first: Alyssa nakken makes coaching history. https://www.mlb.com/news/alyssa-nakken-1st-on-field-woman-coach-in-mlb-history

Hovden, J., & Tjønndal, A. (2019). The gendering of coaching from an athlete perspective: The case of Norwegian boxing. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 54(2), 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690217715641

Howell, J. L., & Giuliano, T. A. (2011). The effect of expletive use and team gender perceptions of coaching effectiveness. Journal of Sport Behavior, 34(1), 69-81.

Jacobi, L. L. (2014). Perceptions of profanity: How race, gender, and expletive choice affect perceived offensiveness. North American Journal of Psychology, 16(2), 261-275. https://doi.org/10.1037/e603132013-001

Junior, J. R. A. do N., Silva, E. C. da, Freire, G. L. M., Granja, C. T. L., Silva, A. A. da, & Oliveira, D. V. de. (2020). La motivación del deportista y la calidad de su relación con el entrenador. Apunts Educación Física y Deportes, 141, 21–28. https://doi.org/10.5672/apunts.2014-0983.es.(2020/4).142.03

Kamphoff, C. S., Armentrout, S. M., & Driska, A. (2010). The token female: Women’s experiences as division i collegiate head coaches of men’s teams. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 3(2), 297–315. https://doi.org/10.1123/jis.3.2.297

Kaye, B. K., & Sapolsky, B. S. (2009). Taboo or not taboo? That is the question: Offensive language on prime-time broadcast and cable programming. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(1), 22–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838150802643522

Kistler, M. E., & Lee, M. J. (2009). Does exposure to sexual hip-hop music videos influence the sexual attitudes of college students? Mass Communication and Society, 13(1), 67–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205430902865336

Knoppers, A., de Haan, D., Norman, L., & LaVoi, N. (2022). Elite women coaches negotiating and resisting power in football. Gender, Work & Organization, 29(3), 880–896. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12790

LaFountaine, J., & Kamphoff, C. S. (2016). Coaching boys’ high school teams: Female coaches’ experiences and perceptions. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 11(1), 27–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954115624815

Longman, J. (2017, March 30). Number of women coaching in college has plummeted in title ix era. Associated Press. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/30/sports/ncaabasketball/coaches-women-title-ix.html

MacKinnon, V. (2011). Techniques for instructing female athletes in traditionally male sports: A case study of LPGA teaching professionals. The International Journal of Sport and Society, 2(1), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.18848/2152-7857/CGP/v02i01/54060

Martin, D. E. (1994). Emergency Medicine and the Underage Athlete. Journal of Athletic Training, 29(3), 200.

Megargee, S. (2023, March 23). Study: Most women’s NCAA teams are still coached by men. AP Sports. https://apnews.com/article/diversity-ncaa-coaches-30958ab74d4b61efc0d54eee361dafef

Meier, M. (2015). The value of female sporting role models. Sport in Society, 18(8), 968–982. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2014.997581

Messner, M. A., & Sabo, D. F. (1990). Sport, men, and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (Issue v. 10). Human Kinetics Books. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=cczfAAAAMAAJ

Misasi, S., Morin, G., & Kwasnowski, L. (2016). Leadership: Athletes and coaches in sport – The sport journal. The Sport Journal , 1–19. https://thesportjournal.org/article/leadership-athletes-and-coaches-in-sport/

Norris, L. A., Didymus, F. F., & Kaiseler, M. (2017). Stressors, coping, and wellbeing among sports coaches: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 33, 93–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.08.005

Nursanti, E. (2022). Men’s language and masculine identity construction in sexist jokes. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 7(2), 255. https://doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v7i2.818

Pape, M. (2020). Gender segregation and trajectories of organizational change: The underrepresentation of women in sports leadership. Gender & Society, 34(1), 81–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243219867914

Poggi, H. (2018, November 26). Opinion: Rising use of profanity lessens shock value. Ethic News. https://ethic-news.org/2018/11/26/swearing-becomes-more-commonplace/

Precht, K. (2008). Sex similarities and differences in stance in informal American conversation 1. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12(1), 89–111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00354.x

Rassin, E., & Heijden, S. Van Der. (2005). Appearing credible? Swearing helps! Psychology, Crime & Law, 11(2), 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/106831605160512331329952

Remler, D. K., & Van Ryzin, G. G. (2021). Research methods in practice: Strategies for description and causation. SAGE Publications. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=2iI_EAAAQBAJ

Selnow, G. W. (1985). Sex differences in uses and perceptions of profanity. Sex Roles, 12(3–4), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00287597

Sheykhangafshe, F. B., Abolghasemi, A., & Masouleh, S. M. K. (2021). Predicting resilience based on dark triad personality and psychological wellbeing in athletes students. Journal of Arak University Medical Sciences, 24(2), 230–245. https://doi.org/10.32598/jams.24.2.6151.1

Soares, A. L. A., Leonardi, T. J., Silva, J., Nascimento, J. V., Paes, R. R., Gonçalves, C. E., & Carvalho, H. M. (2020). Performance, motivation, and enjoyment in young female basketball players: An interdisciplinary approach. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(8), 873–885. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1736247

Stangl, J. M., & Kane, M. J. (1991). Structural variables that offer explanatory power for the underrepresentation of women coaches since title IX: The case of homologous reproduction. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8(1), 47–60. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.8.1.47

Stone, T., Francis, L., & Levett-Jones, T. (2009). Profanity, expletives, swearing and offensive language-all in a day’s work? HNE, 12.

Syahidna, B. S., & Roselani, N. G. A. (2023). “What the F---”: Taboo words in the TV series sex education. Lexicon, 10(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.22146/lexicon.v10i1.81484

Tambiah, S. J. (1968). The magical power of words. Man, 3(2), 175. https://doi.org/10.2307/2798500

Wachsmuth, S., Jowett, S., & Harwood, C. G. (2022). Third party interventions in coach-athlete conflict: Can sport psychology practitioners offer the necessary support? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 34(1), 178–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2020.1723737

Women, C. (2017). Female physiology and considerations for coaching practice. Women in Sport.

Yabe, Y., Hagiwara, Y., Sekiguchi, T., Momma, H., Tsuchiya, M., Kuroki, K., Kanazawa, K., Koide, M., Itaya, N., Yoshida, S., Sogi, Y., Yano, T., Itoi, E., & Nagatomi, R. (2019). Verbal abuse from coaches is associated with loss of motivation for the present sport in young athletes: A cross-sectional study in miyagi prefecture. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 248(2), 107–113. https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.248.107




DOI: https://doi.org/10.58524/002024333800

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2024 Carrington Ream, Hoyoon Jung, Bomin Paek

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

 Creative Commons License All publications by the foundation of advanced education [e-ISSN: 2963-1483p-ISSN: 2963-1459] are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.